The BTR-40 (Bronetransporter, literally "armoured transporter".) is a Soviet non-amphibious, wheeled armoured personnel carrier and reconnaissance vehicle. It is often referred to as the Sorokovka in Soviet service. It is also the first mass-produced Soviet APC. It was eventually replaced in the APC role by the BTR-152 and in the reconnaissance vehicle role by the BRDM-1.
BTR-141 (1947) - The original prototype with a faceted rear hull had two variants. The first was armed with twin ZPTU-2 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine guns placed in a rotary platform with armour protection at the front and sides. The second version had no permanent armament but later became the BTR-40.
BTR-40 (1950) - Original production model.
BTR-40A (1950) - BTR-40 converted into a SPAAG armed with twin ZPTU-2 14.5 mm twin anti-aircraft gun (2400 rounds) in a turret, later also used in the BTR-152A, manually operated by a single soldier. The turret is placed inside the troop compartment. It can make a full turn and its guns can elevate between -5 and +80 degrees. This variant does not have the firing ports in the hull sides.
BTR-40V (1956) - BTR-40 fitted with an external tyre pressure regulation system.
BTR-40B (1957) - BTR-40V with an armoured roof with four hatches. The vehicle has a filtering/ventilation system, NBC protection system and central central tyre pressure regulation system. It also has a pintle mount for a 12.7 mm or 14.5 mm heavy machine gun, although the standard version of the BTR-40B had no fixed armament. It was designed for use as a reconnaissance vehicle. Crew was reduced from 2 + 8 passengers to 2 + 6.
BTR-40Kh - NBC reconnaissance vehicle.
BTR-40ZhD (1959) - BTR-40 equipped with small rail wheels mounted to the front and rear of the vehicle on special supports.
BRDM-1 - Armoured car which uses a number of BTR-40 components. Originally planned to be an amphibious variant of the BTR-40 and therefore it received the designation BTR-40P.
BRDM-1 obr. 1957 - standard unarmed amphibious armoured acout car with an opened top. It was also known under designation BTR-40P.
BRDM-1 obr. 1958 - standard unarmed amphibious armoured scout car fitted with a roof with two hatches at the front. It was also known under designation BTR-40P.
BRDM-1 obr. 1959 - standard amphibious armoured scout car fitted with one 7.62 mm medium machine gun pintle mount at the front of the roof. It was also known under designation BTR-40P.
BRDM-1 obr. 1960 - standard amphibious armoured scout car fitted with three 7.62 mm medium machine guns pintle mounts: one at the front of the roof and one on each side of the superstructure. It was possible to mount machine guns at all three mounting positions at the same time but it was rarely practiced. It was also known under designation BTR-40P.
BRDM-2 - Further development of BRDM-1.
BRDM-RKh - NBC reconnaissance vehicle with two KZO-2 flag dispensers and with several detection devices including the DP dosimeter and PCHR-54 semi-automatic detection device. It was also known under designation BTR-40P-Rkh.
BRDM-1U - Command vehicle with additional R-112 radios and 3 whip antennas. It was also known under designations BTR-40PU and BRDM-u.
BRDM-1U modified for use by transport units. This variant has a rear traffic light.
2P27 - Tank destroyer equipped with 2K16 launcher for 3x3M6 "Shmel" (AT-1 Snapper) ATGM. The rear of the vehicle has been completely rebuild. The space for the reconnaissance team and the reconnaissance equipment is replaced by a superstructure in which a launcher with three 3M6 "Shmel" missiles is carried. While on the move the launcher is hidden inside of the superstructure and is protected by its armour. Thanks to this when the launcher is not deployed the 2P27 looks almost exactly as a normal BRDM-1. It even still has four firing ports on both sides of the vehicle even though it is impossible to operate them in this vehicle. It is almost impossible to distinguish the two vehicles from a long distance. When the vehicle stops the rocket launcher can be deployed. This is done by taking off two the steel panels on top of the launcher's compartment, opening a flap in the rear of the superstructure and elevating the launcher. After that the launcher can be immediately fired. Developed in 1958.
2P32 - Tank destroyer equipped with 2K8 launcher for 4x9M11 "Falanga" (AT-2 Swatter) ATGM. The vehicle is exactly the same as the 2P27 but has a different missile launcher which uses four 9M11 "Falanga". It is a logical successor to the 2P27, entered service in 1962.
9P110 - Tank destroyer equipped with 9К14М launcher for 6x9M14 "Malyutka" (AT-3 Sagger) ATGM. Production started in 1963. This vehicle just like 2P27 and 2P32 has superstructure in the rear where the missile launcher is hidden however the launcher's compartment is smaller the vehicle retains the characteristic rear of the BRDM-1. Also the mechanism of deploying the launcher was simpled. Now it is just a matter of finding a suitable site and elevating the launcher. One of the visually distinguishing features between this tank destroyer from 2P27 and 2P32 after the launcher has been deployed is the fact that the latter ones don't have the overhead protection for the launcher once it's in firing position.